The Natural Approach to Regenerative Medicine
Placental tissues have been found to be a rich source of proteins, carbohydrates, hyaluronic acids and growth factors essential for fetal growth and development.
Amniotic tissue, the innermost layer of the placenta, is unique in that it is “immune-privileged” and, as such, rarely evokes an immune response in the human body. Research has shown that amniotic tissue does not express the Class II antigens that typically evoke an immune response. In addition, this tissue has been shown to have anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial and anti-adhesive properties. The collagens in the amniotic tissue provide a structural tissue matrix for cellular attachment. While providing structural support to cells, the extracellular matrix assists in the migration and proliferation of the patient’s own cells to the site of injury or defect.
The cells inherent in the placental tissues have been found to be broadly multipotent, capable of differentiating into adipogenic, osteogenic, myogenic, endothelial, neurogenic and hepatic cell lineages. The presence of these multipotent cells naturally present in the tissues may provide ancillary clinical benefits to the patient.
Placental Tissue Characteristics
- Extracellular matrix composition of Collagens l, lll, lV, V, Vll and other structural proteins provides a natural scaffold to facilitate cellular adhesion while assisting cellular migration and proliferation.(1)
- Growth factors found in amniotic tissue such as PDGF, VEGF, EGF, FDF and TGF-B promote cellular proliferation and new collagen formation and minimize scar tissue formation.(1)
- Amniotic tissues have been described as immune-privileged because they rarely evoke an immune response in the human body.
- Interleukin-1 receptor antagonists(IL-1RA) and Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase (TIMP) 1,2,3,4 proteins present in amniotic tissues suppress and modulate inflammation and pain.(2)
1. Gruss, J, et al. Human amniotic membrane: a versatile wound dressing. CMA Journal 1978; Vol 118: 1237-1246. Niknejad, H, et al.
2. Properties of amniotic membrane for potential use in Tissue Engineering. European Cells and Materials 2008; Vol 15: 88-99.